MosaicED Brain Teaser!
Here comes the story of the chronic inflammation
The way the body comes to the station
For something that shouldn't be done
Chronically inflame a cell, but one time it could-a be
The champion of the world.
Which of these cells are not involved in chronic inflammation?
- D-Mast cells
- F-Plasma cells
E-Neutrophils. First lets explain what all these cells are: eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells, and basophils are all granulocytes. Granulocytes have granules in their cytoplasm, 50-60% of all granulocytes are neutrophils. They are also referred to as polymorphonuclear leukocytes because they have funny looking nucleuses. Lymphocytes are T cells B cells and natural killer cells, they are the main types of cells found in the lymph system. Plasma cells are mature B cells that produce antibodies when activated. Leukocytes, although not on the list, refers to all white blood cells.
Classic signs of inflammation: Heat, redness, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Acute inflammation; caused by stimuli - infection, necrosis, foreign body, immune reaction. The vessels dilate (gets more blood there, slows the blood down around the area), the vascular permeability increases (gaps form between the endothelial cells, protein rich exudate flows into the area), and then white cells get into the area (the get extracellular through a three step process: margination and rolling, activation and adhesion, transmigration). The neutrophils then phagocytose. Acute inflammation can end in four different ways; resolution, fibrosis, abscess formation, and chronic inflammation. Abscess formation, and chronic inflammation in turn can lead to fibrosis. Acute inflammation is driven by neutrophils.
Chronic inflammation can be caused by persistent infections, prolonged exposure to toxic agents, or autoimmune disease. Cells involved in chronic inflammation: monocytes/macrophages (the main cell from 48 hours), lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, and eosinophils.They form granulomas which are a focal area of granulomatous inflammation, consisting of a microscopic aggregate of macrophages transformed into epithelium-like cells, surrounded by a collar of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Granulomas can be caused by bacteria (TB, leprosy, syphilis, cat scratch disease), parasites (toxoplasmosis), fungi (candidiasis), foreign body, or an unknown cause (Crohn disease, sarcoidosis).